Publications & Presentations

Procedural Justice & Legitimacy

Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. McLean, 2017.  Mirage of Police Reform: Procedural Justice and Police Legitimacy. Oakland, CA: University of California Press.

Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. McLean, 2018. “Measuring, Managing, and Enhancing Procedural Justice in Policing: Promise and Pitfalls,” Criminal Justice Policy Review 29 (2): 149-171.

Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. McLean, 2017.  “Research on Police Legitimacy: The State of the Art,” Policing: An International Journal 40 (3): 480-513.

Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. McLean, 2017.  “Building Trust in the Police: What Really Works?The Crime Report, July 18.

Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. McLean, 2015. “Police Legitimacy, Procedural Justice, and the Exercise of Police Authority,” Research in Brief, The Police Chief 82 (November): 14-16.

Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. McLean, 2014. Assessing Police Performance in Citizen Encounters: Police Legitimacy and Management Accountability.  Report to the National Institute of Justice.  Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.  DOI 10.13140/2.1.2257.3125.

John D. McCluskey, Robert E. Worden, and Sarah J. McLean, 2014. “Police Legitimacy and Police Encounters,” in Gerben Jan Nicholaas Bruinsma and David Lee Weisburd, eds., Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice.  Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

Andrew P. Wheeler, Jasmine R. Silver, Robert E. Worden, and Sarah J. McLean, 2017.  “Mapping Attitudes towards the Police at Micro-Places.”

Police Practices and Management

Early Intervention Systems

Robert E. Worden, MoonSun Kim, Christopher J. Harris, Mary Ann Pratte, Shelagh E. Dorn & Shelley S. Hyland, 2013. “Intervention with Problem Officers: An Outcome Evaluation of an EIS Intervention,” Criminal Justice and Behavior 40 (April): 410-438. 

Robert E. Worden, Christopher J. Harris & Sarah J. McLean, 2014. “Risk Assessment and Risk Management in Policing,” Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 37 (2): 239-258.

Robert E. Worden, 2015. “Early Intervention Systems: What We Know and What We Need to Learn,” presented at the Executive Session on Early Warning Systems, CNA, Arlington, VA.

Robert E. Worden, Sarah J. McLean, Eugene A. Paoline, III, and Julie Krupa, 2015. “Features of Contemporary Early Intervention Systems,” presented at the Annual Conference of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, Chicago.

Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. McLean, 2016. “Prediction and Intervention to Prevent Police Misconduct,” in Ronald Burke (ed.), Stress in Policing: Sources, Consequences and Interventions. London: Routledge.

Robert E. Worden, Sarah J. McLean, and Kelly J. Becker, 2017. “Police Early Intervention Systems: The State of the Art,” presented at the Annual Conference of the National Association for Civilian Oversight of Law Enforcement, Spokane.

Proactive Policing

Robert E. Worden, Andrew P. Wheeler, and Sarah J. McLean, 2016. “Smart Stops: Toward More Strategic Proactive Policing,” Paper Presented at the American Society of Criminology Meeting, New Orleans, LA. November.

Andrew P. Wheeler, Sarah J. McLean and Robert E. Worden, 2016. “Making Stops Smart: Predicting Arrest Rates from Discretionary Police Stops at Micro-Places in Albany, NY,” Paper presented at the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Meeting, Denver, Colorado. March.

Sarah J. McLean, Danielle L. Reynolds, Robert E. Worden and Caitlin J. Dole, 2017. “The Skills of Proactive Policing,” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology.

Compstat

Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. McLean, 2008.  COMPSTAT in the Troy Police Department: A First Year Appraisal.  Report to the Troy Police Department. Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety.

Sarah J. McLean and Robert E. Worden, 2011.  Compstat in the Schenectady Police Department: An Appraisal. Report to the Schenectady Police Department. Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety.

Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. McLean, 2018. “Reflections on CompStat in the Community Era of Policing,” in Susan Shah, Jim Burch, and S. Rebecca Neusteter (eds.), Leveraging CompStat to Include Community Measures in Police Performance Management, Perspectives from the Field (New York: Vera Institute of Justice).

Diversion

Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. Mclean, 2018. “Discretion and Diversion in Albany’s LEAD Program,” Criminal Justice Policy Review 29 (6-7): 585-610.

Sarah J. McLean, Robert E. Worden, and Caitlin J. Dole, 2017.  Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion: The View from the Street. Report to the Albany Police Department. Albany, NY: John Finn Institute for Public Safety.

Robert E. Worden, Sarah J. McLean, and Caitlin J. Dole, 2017.  Albany’s Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion: A Process Evaluation.  Report to the New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services.  Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

Robin S. Engel, Robert E. Worden, Nicholas Corsaro, Hannah D. McManus, Danielle L. Reynolds, Hannah Cochran, Gabrielle T. Isaza, and Jennifer Calnon Cherkauskas, 2018. Deconstructing the Power to Arrest: Lessons from Research.  Cincinnati: IACP / UC Center for Police Research and Policy & the John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety.

Discretion

Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. McLean, 2014. “Police Discretion in Law Enforcement,” in Gerben Jan Nicholaas Bruinsma and David Lee Weisburd, eds., Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice.  Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

Police Accountability

Complaint Review

Robert E. Worden, Heidi S. Bonner and Sarah J. McLean, 2018.  “Procedural Justice and Citizen Review of Complaints against the Police: Structure, Outcomes, and Complainants’ Subjective Experiences,” Police Quarterly 21 (1): 77-108.

Robert E. Worden and Kelly J. Becker, 2015. “Tip of an Iceberg: Citizen Complaints and Citizen Dissatisfaction with the Police,” poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Washington, DC.

Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. McLean, 2010. Citizen Oversight of the Albany Police, 2010.

Robert E. Worden, 2004. Citizen Oversight of the Albany Police: Perceptions of Police Clients and Complainants, 2003.

Racial Profiling & Bias-Based Policing

Robert E. Worden, 2018.  Report of Robert E. Worden, Ph.D., Collins, et al. v. City of Milwaukee, No. 17 CV 00234, Eastern District of Wisconsin.

Robert E. Worden, Sarah J. McLean, and Andrew Wheeler, 2010.  Stops by Syracuse Police.  Report to the Syracuse Police Department. Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.   

Robert E. Worden, Sarah J. McLean and Andrew P. Wheeler, 2012. “Testing for Racial Profiling with the Veil-of-Darkness Method,” Police Quarterly 15 (March): 92-111. 

Crime Control Strategy

Sarah J. McLean, Robert E. Worden, MoonSun Kim and Tara L. Garmley, 2008. Weston’s Public Surveillance Camera Project: A Process and Outcome Study.

Sarah J. McLean, Robert E. Worden and Tara L. Garmley, 2009. Weston’s Public Surveillance Camera Project: Phase II Process Evaluation.

Sarah J. McLean, Robert E. Worden & MoonSun Kim, 2013. “Here’s Looking at You: An Evaluation of Public CCTV Cameras and Their Effects on Crime and Disorder,” Criminal Justice Review 38: 303-334.

Robert E. Worden, Sarah J. McLean, and MoonSun Kim, 2012. Camera Surveillance on the Near Westside: A Preliminary Evaluation.  Report to the Syracuse Police Department.  Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

Sarah J. McLean, Robert E. Worden, and MoonSun Kim, 2013. Camera Surveillance on the Near Westside: An Outcome Evaluation.  Report to the Syracuse Police Department.  Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

Sarah J. McLean, Robert E. Worden, MoonSun Kim, Tara L. Garmley, and Heidi S. Bonner,

  1.  “Operation Safe Corridor: An Outcome Evaluation,” Criminal Justice Policy Review

21 (September):363-380.

Madison A. Bryant and Robert E. Worden, 2018.  Offender-Focused Enforcement, Year One: A Process Evaluation of CORE 2.0.  Report to the Onondaga County GIVE Task Force. Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

Andrew P. Wheeler, Robert E. Worden, and Jasmine R. Silver, 2017.  The Accuracy of the Violent Offender Identification Directive (VOID) Tool to Predict Future Gun Violence.    

Robert E. Worden, Kenan M. Worden, Sarah J. McLean, and Madison A. Bryant, 2018.  Risk Assessment for Offender-Focused Enforcement: Phase I Analysis.  Report to the Syracuse Police Department.  Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

Robert E. Worden and MoonSun Kim, 2015.  Highway Gun Interdiction, 2012-2014: An Outcome Evaluation.  Report to the Onondaga County GIVE Executive Committee.  Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

Robert E. Worden, Sarah J. McLean, and MoonSun Kim, 2013.  Highway Gun Interdiction: An Outcome Evaluation.  Report to the Syracuse Police Department.  Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

Analysis of Violence and Crime

Andrew P. Wheeler, Robert E. Worden, and Sarah J. McLean, 2016. “Replicating Group-Based Trajectory Models of Crime at Micro-Places in Albany, NY,” Journal of Quantitative Criminology 32: 589-612.

Robert E. Worden, Andrew P. Wheeler and Sarah J. McLean, 2016. Social Networks of Syracuse Gun Offenders. A Report to the Onondaga County GIVE Executive Task Force. Albany, NY: John Finn Institute for Public Safety.

Kelly J. Becker, Robert E. Worden, and Sarah J. McLean, 2017. An Inquiry into Non-Gang Related Shootings. Report to the Onondaga County GIVE Task Force. Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

Gang Prevention, Intervention, Suppression

Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. McLean, 2013. Syracuse Truce, Year One: An Assessment. Albany, NY: John Finn Institute for Public Safety.

Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. McLean, 2014. Syracuse Truce, Year Two: An Assessment.  Albany, NY: John Finn Institute for Public Safety.

Robert E. Worden, Sarah J. McLean, and Kelly J. Becker, 2015.  Syracuse Truce: Third Annual Assessment.  Report to the Syracuse Police Department.  Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

Sarah J. McLean, Robert E. Worden, Kelly J. Becker and Andrew P. Wheeler, 2016. Syracuse Truce: Fourth Annual Assessment. Report to the Syracuse Police Department. Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety.

Robert E. Worden, Kelly J. Becker, and Sarah J. McLean, 2017. Syracuse Truce: Fifth Annual Assessment. Report to the Syracuse Police Department. Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

Robert E. Worden and Kelly J. Becker, 2018. Syracuse Truce: Summary of Impacts. Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

Sarah J. McLean, Kelly J. Becker and Robert E. Worden, 2018. Syracuse Truce: Offender Awareness and the Impact on Perceptions and Choices. Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

Sarah J. McLean, Robert E. Worden, and Kelly J. Becker, 2018.  Implementation and Impacts of the Comprehensive Gang Model: An Evaluation of Syracuse Save Our Youth. Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

Sarah J. McLean, Kelly J. Becker and Jessica McCormick, 2016. Utica/Oneida Group Violence Intervention Problem Analysis. Report to the New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services. Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety.

Sarah J. McLean, Kelly J. Becker and Jessica McCormick, 2016.  City of Schenectady Group Violence Intervention Problem Analysis. Report to the New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services. Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety.

Sarah J. Mclean and Jessica Roy, 2018. Oneida/Utica Save our Streets Group Violence Intervention Strategy: A Process Assessment. Report prepared for the Save Our Streets Working Group. Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.

Sarah J. McLean and Robert E. Worden, 2011. City of Syracuse Youth Gang Assessment: Phase I. Report to the Onondaga County IMPACT Consortium/Project Safe Neighborhoods Task Force and the Syracuse Community Intervention Committee. Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety.

Sarah J. McLean and Robert E. Worden, 2012. City of Syracuse Youth Gang Assessment. Albany, NY: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety.

Robert E. Worden, MoonSun Kim, Sarah J. McLean, and Heidi S. Bonner, 2007. “An Evaluation of RICO Prosecutions Against Gangs,” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Criminology.

Traffic Safety and Traffic Enforcement

Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. McLean, 2009.  DDACTS in Theory and Practice.  Albany: John F. Finn Institute for Public Safety, Inc.  (Also included as an appendix in Jack Stuster, Data-Driven Approaches to Crime and Traffic Safety: Case Studies of Six Programs, Report to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [Santa Barbara: Anacapa Sciences, Inc., 2010].)

Research Methods and Partnerships

Robert E. Worden, Sarah J. McLean and Heidi S. Bonner, 2014. “Research Partners in Criminal Justice: Notes from Syracuse,” Criminal Justice Studies 27 (3): 278-293. 

Robert E. Worden, Sarah J. McLean and Heidi S. Bonner, 2015. “You Can Observe a Lot by Watching: Contributions of Systematic Social Observation to Our Understanding of Police” in Roger G. Dunham and Geoffrey P. Alpert, eds., Critical Issues in Policing: Contemporary Readings. 7th ed.; Long Grove, IL: Waveland.

Robert E. Worden and Sarah J. McLean, 2014. “Systematic Social Observation of the Police,” in Michael Reisig and Robert Kane, eds., Oxford Handbook on Police and Policing. New York: Oxford University Press.